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Conclusion: Cultural background in the engineering ecological measures planning

The best valuable innovations will be of no use, if they will not be supported by people, in other words, if the innovations will not be con gruent with the culture of the society.

Culture is a kind of invisible framework, which determines the behaviour of a whole society as well, as a single individ. The saving remedy — some cultural patterns — in some definite situations become under other conditions fatal. The causes of the whole societies and civilizations extinction were mostly cultural ones — disadaptation in the changed environment, circumstances and world. An attitude to various animals and plants was different in different nations, historical periods and countries. Some organisms were idolized, others were damnated. The same situation exists in the contemporary so-called «civilized world» as well, e.g. in Russia people attract starlings in the specially made wooden nest-boxes and protect them. It happens in spite of the fact that these birds make serious damage to crops.

Social insects (ants and bees first of all) cause human curiosity Honey bees and bumblebees cause warm feelings among the most of European societies, but bumblebees are associated with some sentimental sorrow. Anyway, most nations feel sympathy to them. In spite of this, the bumble beekeeping business in Europe is developed very whimsically. The reasons of it are also cultural to large extent as well, as obviously economic ones.

Recommendations of bumblebees’ protection within the human settlements include the refuse (or restriction) of the two urban cultural traditions: grass cutting (this leaves bumblebees without food supply) and of removing all the old leaves and grass from the ground (and especially burning of this staff), because it dispossesses bumblebees the nesting and hibernation places.

There are no serious obstacles within cultural, psychological or religious fields for bumble beekeeping in Russia. The first practical steps in this sphere seem to be promising. If the adequate investments and informational support will be provided, the process of implementation and integration of bumblebees in the contemporary agriculture will be successful.

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Источник: Богатырев Н.Р.. Прикладная экология шмелей. — Новосибирск: Изд-во Городского центра развития образования,2001. — 160 с.. 2001

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